Suggested Trade and Environment Resources
GLOBAL CLIMATE RISK INDEX 2013. Published by Germanwatch (November 2012). This briefing paper analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.), taking into account the most recent available data from 2011 as well as for the period 1992-2011. The analysis reconfirms that less developed countries are generally more affected than industrialised countries. With regard to future climate change, the Climate Risk Index can serve as a warning signal indicating past vulnerability which may further increase in regions where extreme events will become more frequent or more severe through climate change. The full paper is available here.
GREEN GROWTH INNVOATION: NEW PATHWAYS FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. Published by the Global Green Growth Institute (November 2012). In this analysis, the authors seek to elucidate the areas for new international partnerships or cooperation that could be most effective in the move toward green growth. The report reviews the components of a successful innovation “ecosystem” and then presents and analyses a large set of existing international initiatives that aim to support green growth, and identify strengths and gaps in the existing infrastructure. The authors assess the needs and pragmatic constraints on international institutions, and recommend an integrated, four-part approach to spur innovation partnerships in developing countries. The report concludes that, by linking national governments, the private sector, and the international community, a collaborative effort can make concrete improvements in four key green innovation areas. The full text is available here.
GREEN GROWTH: ECONOMIC THEORY AND POLITICAL DISCOURSE. Published by the London School of Economics (October 2012). This paper explores the concept of green growth in international policy discourse. It distinguishes between a ‘standard’ version, which asserts the long-run economic benefit of environmental protection, and a ‘strong’ interpretation, which claims that environmental policy can be a driver for growth. The paper discusses three different forms of this claim. The first is a Keynesian argument for short-term ‘green stimulus’ in times of recession. Second, a revision of standard growth theory identifies the contribution made to growth by investment in natural capital and the correction of a variety of market failures through environmental policy. Third, the theories of comparative advantage and long waves of capitalism emphasise the importance of technological innovation in generating growth. The paper offers some conclusions on the political economy of green growth and how likely it is to succeed in increasing the priority given to environmental policy. The full text is available here.
ENVIRONMENTAL COMMODITIES MARKETS AND EMISSIONS TRADEING: TOWARDS A LOW-CARBON FUTURE. Published by Routledge (December 2012). This book states that market-based solutions to environmental problems offer great promise, but require complex public policies that take into account the many institutional factors necessary for the market to work and that guard against the social forces that can derail good public policies. Using insights about markets from the new institutional economics, the author sheds light on the institutional history of the emissions trading concept as it has evolved across different contexts. The book aims to make accessible the policy design and practical implementation aspects of a key tool for fighting climate change: emissions trading systems (ETS) for environmental control. The full text is available for purchase here.
EXPLORING FUTURE IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Published by the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (2012). The author of this study states that the possibility of environmental constraints, including climate change, will grow significantly in this century, raising concern over future advances in human development. This study uses the International Futures (IFs) integrated forecasting system to explore three scenarios: a base case scenario; an environmental challenge scenario; and an environmental disaster scenario. The purpose is to consider the impact of different aspects and levels of environmental constraint on the course of future human development. Using the Human Development Index (HDI) and its separate components as the key measures of development, the study finds that environmental constraints could indeed greatly slow progress and even, in disastrous conditions, begin to reverse it. The author shows that least developed countries are most vulnerable in relative terms, while middle-income countries can suffer the greatest absolute impact of constraints. The full text is available here.
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