Renewable Energy WTO Dispute Moves into Home Stretch
The degree to which countries can help support their burgeoning renewable energy sectors was again the subject of debate at the WTO this week, with Canada defending itself at a second dispute settlement hearing. Japan and the EU have brought two separate cases - DS412 and DS426, which are being heard together - against Canada over local content requirements in the province of Ontario’s feed-in tariff scheme.
Positions by the parties have not deviated significantly since the panel’s first hearing in March (see Bridges Weekly, 28 March 2012). The opposing sides remain focused on whether the feed-in tariff scheme should be considered legitimate government procurement or an illegal subsidy. Oral statements, delivered on 15 May, delved into the details of the two positions, with each party expressing concern that arguments had not been advanced further.
There are two central questions that the panel is looking at to determine whether the scheme should be considered government procurement - and thus justified under WTO law. First, is the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) actually purchasing a good when it acquires energy from wind farms involved in the FIT scheme, or does it operate more as a fund or price support? Second, what criteria or benchmarks should be used to determine whether the purchase price by the OPA is above market value and thus confers a benefit?
On the issue of benchmarking, Japan and the EU argue that the benchmark should be determined by the Hourly Ontario Energy Price (HOEP) - essentially the price consumers pay at the meter. They argue that because the price the OPA pays is significantly higher than the HOEP, the scheme is clearly a subsidy.
The Canadian delegation, however, insists that consumer prices do not reflect market standards for renewable energy, as the HOEP applies for “comingled or blended electricity” from different sources such as hydro, nuclear, solar, etc., which come with different production costs and characteristics.
“The final amount paid by the end-user … is reflective of the supply mix,” the Canadian delegation argued. But the “differences in costs and inherent attributes are reflected in the different regulated and contractual rates paid to each type of generation by Ontario.”
“The different forms of energy do not compete with each other in Canada,” Canadian representative Raahool Watchmaker clarified.
Dispute panel member Alec Erwin (South Africa) notably questioned the EU and Japan as to how their respective markets operate to determine benchmarks and pricing, acknowledging that renewable energy sectors have not been flourishing in an unsupported marketplace. Both the EU and Japan were not immediately able to respond, but agreed to submit a response in writing.
Generally, the panel members focused heavily on the substantial and legal facts that could inform the decision on whether the FIT measure is government procurement or subsidisation. To some observers this came as a surprise, as many experts have argued that Canada fights an already lost battle, with the local content requirement being a clear violation of WTO law.
On the sidelines of the formal meeting, two citizen groups drew attention to the climate change issues at stake by filing two amicus curiae submissions - unsolicited comments from non-governmental groups that mean to inform proceedings but that have no particular legal standing.
The first submission, sent by a coalition composed primarily of Canadian trade unions, focuses on the value of the Kyoto Protocol as a justification for Ontario’s approach.
“Ontario’s FIT program is a perfect expression of the principles of sustainable development in which environmental and economic goals are married to address the imperatives of climate change,” the amicus brief finds. “In accordance with its obligations under [the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change] and the Kyoto Protocol, Ontario is not only seeking to increase the consumption of renewable energy but to facilitate the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Ontario.”
While Canada made headlines last December by announcing that it was withdrawing itself from Kyoto, many domestic environmental groups continue to push for the country to re-engage.
The second submission - compiled by a group of three environment-focused non-governmental organisations - takes a similar approach when arguing in favour of recognising environmental protection objectives as exceptions to the WTO’s subsidy rules.
“One of the most important routes for [climate change] action is via fiscal and regulatory policy that internalises environmental costs,” the submission reads. “However, the scale of the climate change problem dictates that this will not be sufficient; government support for early stage commercialisation of mitigation technologies [...] will also be necessary in some sectors.”
It is not clear whether the submissions will be considered by the dispute panel, but Chair of the panel Thomas Cottier (Switzerland) said that he would like them distributed to the parties. Japan and the EU both objected to inclusion of new arguments at such a late stage in the process, but acknowledged that the final decision was up to the panel.
The panel report is currently expected for September of this year.
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