Agriculture Programme Publications

2009


Agriculture Programme
7th December 2009 New Book | Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green BoxDo the World Trade Organization’s rules on ‘green box’ farm subsidies allow both rich and poor countries to achieve important goals such as food security, or do they worsen poverty, distort trade and harm the environment? Current WTO requirements set no ceiling on the amount of green box subsidies that governments can provide, on the basis…
4th December 2009 How do Food Prices Affect Producers Affect Producers and Consumers in Developing Countries?High food prices in 2008 brought global attention to the difficulties that producers and consumers in developing countries have faced for many years. This note examines trends in global agricultural production and surveys some of the newest information that has come to light to probe how food prices have affected agriculture.
18th November 2009 Capping Unusually High Tariffs: The WTO Doha Round and ‘Tariff Peaks’This information note examines the proposed tariff cap and what this would mean for countries with extremely high tariffs. The tariff peaks of Iceland, Japan, Norway and Switzerland are examined in closer detail.
9th November 2009 Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security GoalsThis brief summarizes the trade policy areas of concern for governments as they prepare for the upcoming World Summit on Food Security.
4th November 2009 Draft Country Study United States: Composite Index of Market AccessThis study is a preliminary draft of a pilot study conducted under the CIMA iniative. It explores the sorts of market access barriers that rice exports from the United States face and generates a Composite Index of Market Access for the most significant markets. This study is a draft and is not for citation. Please…
26th October 2009 Draft Country Study Thailand: Composite Index of Market AccessThis study is a preliminary draft of the second pilot study conducted under the CIMA iniative. It explores the sorts of market access barriers that rice exports from Thailand face and generates a Composite Index of Market Access for the most significant markets. This study is a draft and is not for citation. Please send comments to abahalim [at] ictsd…
23rd October 2009 How Would a Trade Deal on Sugar Affect Exporting and Importing Countries?This study examines how exporting and importing countries could be affected by a trade deal on sugar along the lines of that under discussion in the WTO’s Doha Round, as well as in bilateral and regional negotiations. The study takes into consideration the preferential access arrangements that currently exist, recent historical trends in sugar trade…
14th October 2009 Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development GoalsCurrent WTO requirements set no ceiling on the amount of green box subsidies that governments can provide, on the basis that these payments cause only minimal trade distortion. Governments are thus increasingly shifting their subsidy spending into this category, as they come under pressure to reduce subsidies that are more directly linked to production. However,…
1st October 2009 ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change Agriculture and Trade: Considerations for PolicymakersClimate Change is expected to increase the likelihood of extreme weather events and contribute to longer-term changes in temperature and precipitation. Given agriculture’s reliance on the weather, the agricultural sector will be seriously impacted by climate change. The sector is also a significant contributor of greenhouse gasses and will need to play a role in…
14th September 2009 Bioénergies et développement durable dans les pays membres de l’UEMOACe rapport identifie les possibilités, évalue les obstacles et les compromis possibles et donne un aperçu des problèmes politiques clé pour promouvoir la production durable et l’utilisation de bioénergie dans les huit pays membres de l’UEMOA. Ce rapport fournit aussi des données aux gouvernements et aux organisations internationales qui cherchent à créer des systèmes de…
9th September 2009 Sustainable Bioenergy Development in UEMOA Member CountriesThis report, led by the UN Foundation, in partnership with the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development and the Energy and Security Group, identifies opportunities, assesses constraints, identifies trade-offs, and outlines key policy issues for promoting sustainable production and use of bioenergy in the eight member countries of UEMOA. It also provides appropriate data…
1st September 2009 Biofuels Certification and the Law of the World Trade OrganizationTo view the Executive Summary, please click here. This report places biofuels certification in an international trade context. It assesses certification through the World Trade Organization (WTO) lens and develops the requirements for trade compliance. This paper identifies a number of issues for policymakers to consider, including the following: - compliance with a variety of standards and incentives…
1st August 2009 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies and Agriculture: Implications for Production Incentives and International Trade DisciplinesTo view the Executive Summary, please click here. For countries seeking to design effective domestic or international climate change abating policy and incite mitigation, a solid understanding of the implications of greenhouse gas reduction policies for production incentives in agriculture and for international trade disciplines is imperative. From nearly twenty years of analysis and inquiry into…
28th July 2009 Statement and Recommendations: A Copenhagen Agreement Should Consider AgricultureAhead of the June 1-12 Climate Change Talks taking place in Bonn, ICTSD and the International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council (IPC) released a statement and recommendations on the need to incorporate agriculture in a new international climate change regime. This statement and recommendations are part of the ICTSD-IPC Platform on Climate Change, Agriculture and…
17th July 2009 How would a WTO agreement on bananas affect exporting and importing countries?Bananas, an essential source of export revenue for many developing countries, have been an important source of disagreement in the Doha Round of trade talks. This study employs economic modeling to assess the implications of a deal on trade in bananas. The scenarios it uses focus on the role of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and…
16th July 2009 US Trade Policies on Biofuels and Sustainable DevelopmentTo view the Executive Summary, please click here. Biofuel in the United States of America (USA) is primarily ethanol produced from corn. Although new legislation in the form of a recent Farm Bill and an ambitious biofuels mandate looks toward increased production of other forms of bioenergy, such as cellulosic biofuels, there is little commercial production…
16th July 2009 Biofuels Subsidies and the Law of the World Trade OrganizationTo view the Executive Summary, please click here. This paper reviews biofuel measures that are commonly used in major producing countries against WTO subsidies disciplines. These measures are found in a range of laws and policies relating to energy, the environment and agriculture. There is little evidence that domestic policymakers have taken into account WTO disciplines when…
16th July 2009 Ensuring EU farm policy supports the Millennium Development GoalsThis short information note addresses how aid that governments provide to developing countries can often be undermined by their counteractive domestic agricultural policies. The EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), originally intended to address post-war food shortages, now causes overproduction at home while undermining some development efforts abroad. Developing country farmers are not only unable…
16th July 2009 Constructing a Composite Index of Market AccessTrade barriers are often opaque and difficult to compare. All too often, an exporter faces costs well in excess of a simple tariff when seeking entry to a market. However, to date, there exist few tools to measure the changes in market access that will takeplace at the conclusion of the Doha Round, or those…
14th July 2009 Comparing safeguard measures in regional and bilateral agreementsThis study provides trade negotiators, policy-makers and other stakeholders with a clear, practical comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various safeguard clauses included in bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs). It groups together regional agreements on the basis of shared characteristics, examines the extent to which various safeguard clauses have been…
13th July 2009 Implications for China of the December 2008 Draft Agricultural ModalitiesWith nearly 900 million people dependent on agriculture for income, China produces more wheat and paddy than any other country, yet it is a country dependent upon trade to both employ and feed its people. Moreover, China has some of the lowest agricultural tariffs of any WTO Member and yet subsidies that rival the EU’s…
7th July 2009 EU Support for Biofuels and Bioenergy, Environmental Sustainability Criteria, and Trade PolicyTo view the Executive Summary, please click here. This paper provides a description of the EU’s biofuel policies, set in the context of its overall policy framework on renewable and bioenergy, and their interface with the WTO legal system. Although undoubtedly influenced by concerns about security of energy supplies, and a wish to find alternative market outlets for…
6th May 2009 Biofuel Production, Trade and Sustainable DevelopmentUnstable oil prices, the challenge of climate-change mitigation, and growing concerns over energy security are driving a growth in global production of bioenergy, particularly liquid biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, with implications for agriculture, energy, environment, development and trade. Biofuels could offer countries the potential to curb carbon dioxide emissions, reduce dependence on…
1st May 2009 International Climate Change Negotiations and AgricultureProvides an overview of the existing international climate change agreements and the international negotiations underway and to point out the ways in which the agricultural sector – is – or may be – addressed in the international climate regulatory framework.
9th April 2009 How would a trade deal on cotton affect exporting and importing countries?A final version of this draft paper is now available online here.